One of the key outputs for our BCC-funded BME Impact project is a booklet. Our survey showed that respondents were primarily interested in ‘the science’, followed by guidance on reducing transmission,self-isolating and shielding. We have therefore focused on these topics in the first edition of our booklet. The topics in our second edition will be determined by issues that arise in our Online Group meetings as well as updated official guidance and key messages. We welcome your comments on the booklet.
伯明翰華⼈社區疫情調研項目的一個重要組成部分是我們定期發布的一本小冊子。 在此前的 問卷調查中，顯示受訪者最關注的幾個方麵包括：疫情的科學解釋，如何減少病毒傳播，政府對居家隔離和有關屏蔽保護的指南。因此，我們的第一版手冊將重點關注這些主題。我們第二版手冊的主題將取決於在線小組會議上大家討論的內容，以及政府最新的官方指南和關鍵疫情信息。我們歡迎您對小冊子發表意見。
Booklet in English https://bit.ly/3fisdO6
Booklet in Simplified Chinese https://bit.ly/300U6nc
Booklet in Traditional Chinese https://bit.ly/3fgPsIr
In January 2020, a virus which had first been identified in Wuhan China began to take hold in the UK. By March, the coronavirus had spread at such a rate that the Government ordered the country to go into lockdown with a series of guidance and regulations to try and control the Covid-19 pandemic, as it had been labelled.
Some communities were found to be at higher risk of dying from Covid-19:
2020年1月，中国武汉首次发现新的一种病毒, 开始在英国传播。今年三月，冠状病毒的传播速度逐步升级，英政府下令全国采取一系列抗疫措施和政策, 来控制病毒传播。
Birmingham City Council wanted to work with particular communities to find out what factors put them more at risk, and to channel public health messages in appropriate ways to reduce the risk. Chinese Community Centre-Birmingham received a grant to work with the city’s Chinese community. We set out 4 outputs:
1) 2 surveys – one to benchmark and a follow-up
兩项调查 – 一项基准调查和一项后续调查
2) Weekly Updates with public health messages and useful/local information
每周更新公共卫生信息 / 当地信息 / 相关资讯
3) Online discussion groups – Carers; Men; Older people 65+& people with long term health conditions; Parents; Young people under 35.
网络讨论组 – 护理群；男性；65岁以上的长者和长期病患者；父母和35岁以下的青年人。
4) Booklet – hard copy & electronic versions
小册子 – 印版和电子版本
In this booklet, we provide more detailed explanation about the virus, Government measures to control the pandemic and useful sources of information. Gov.UK, Public Health England (PHE) and the NHS are our sources. We have tried to be as accurate as possible but we take responsibility for any errors.
If you would like to join a discussion group or want to know more about the project, please call 0121 685 8510.
这本小册子中，我们提供更多关于新冠病毒、政府控制病毒传播措施, 有用的资讯和信息。英国政府官方网站 (Gov.UK)，英格兰公共卫生局（Public Health England, PHE）和英国国民保健服务局(NHS)是我们的资讯来源。我们力求做到准确可靠，如果有任何错误，敬请原谅。
如果您想加入讨论组或想了解更多关于该项目的资料，请致电0121 6855 8510
We wish to thank Birmingham City Council for the grant which enabled us to engage with our community on Covid-19 issues. Images are sourced from Public Health England, NHS and from the Internet.
What is Covid-19? 2019新型冠状病毒疾病 (Covid-19) 是什么?
The coronavirus Covid-19 is a new form of virus that can affect your lungs and airways. Viruses need living cells in order to survive so they invade animal or human bodies where they multiply and can cause illness.
Some coronaviruses cause illnesses ranging from colds to severe respiratory disease e.g. SARS.
Viruses are similar to bacteria. However, they are smaller and cannot survive outside a living host body. Bacteria can survive on any surface. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. Viruses are treated with vaccines which introduce a small amount of the virus into your body so you can build immunity. As Covid-19 is new, there isn’t a vaccination yet. Scientists are working to develop one.
有些冠状病毒会引起感冒, 严重可导致呼吸道各种疾病, 例如严重急性呼吸道症候群 (SARS)。
The main symptoms of Covid-19 are: 2019新冠病的主要症状是：
- High temperature 高温
- New persistent cough 持续性咳嗽
- Loss of smell or taste 失去嗅觉或味觉
How Covid-19 is spread? 2019新冠病是如何传播的？
Covid-19 is spread through droplets – when people cough or sneeze, droplets are exhaled and can land on any surface up to 2 metres away. They can survive on these surfaces for at least 9 hours. It is for this reason that basic rules on hygiene and social contact are followed.
Who is at higher risk from coronavirus 谁属于感染新冠病高危群?
Coronavirus (COVID-19) can make anyone seriously ill; but for some people, the risk of dying is higher.
There are 2 levels of higher risk: 高风险有两个级别：
- high risk (clinically extremely vulnerable) 高风险（临床极度脆弱）
- moderate risk (clinically vulnerable) 中度风险（临床易感）
People at high risk (clinically extremely vulnerable) 高风险者（临床极度脆弱）
People at high risk from coronavirus include people who: 新冠病高风险者包括：
- have had an organ transplant 做过器官移植手术者
- are having chemotherapy or antibody treatment for cancer, including immunotherapy 正在接受癌症化疗或抗体治疗，包括免疫治疗
- are having an intense course of radiotherapy (radical radiotherapy) for lung cancer 正在进行肺癌的强化放疗（根治性放疗)(radical radiotherapy)
- are having targeted cancer treatments that can affect the immune system (such as protein kinase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors) 正在进行可能影响免疫系统的靶向癌症治疗（如蛋白激酶抑制剂 (protein kinase inhibitors) 或PARP抑制剂）
- have blood or bone marrow cancer (such as leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma) 患有血液或骨髓癌（如白血病、淋巴瘤或骨髓瘤）
- have had a bone marrow or stem cell transplant in the past 6 months, or are still taking immunosuppressant medicine 在过去6个月内接受过骨髓或干细胞移植，或仍在服用免疫抑制剂
- have been told by a doctor they have a severe lung condition (such as cystic fibrosis, severe asthma or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 医生诊断有严重的肺部疾病（如囊性纤维化、严重哮喘或严重的慢性阻塞性肺病）(COPD)
- have a condition that means they have a very high risk of getting infections (such as (SCID) or sickle cell) 有高感染风险体質（如SCID或镰状细胞）
- are taking medicine that weakens your immune system such as high doses of steroids or immunosuppressant medicine 正在服用削弱免疫系统的药物，如大剂量类固醇或免疫抑制剂
- have a serious heart condition and are pregnant 严重心脏病或怀孕
What to do if you’re at high risk 如你是高风险者, 怎么办?
If you’re at high risk from coronavirus, you’re advised to take extra steps to protect yourself. This is called shielding
People at moderate risk (clinically vulnerable) 中度风险者（临床易感）
People at moderate risk from coronavirus include people who: 新冠病中度风险者包括：
- are 70 or older 70岁以上
- have a lung condition that’s not severe (such as asthma, COPD, emphysema or bronchitis) 患有不严重的肺部疾病（如哮喘、慢性阻塞性肺病、肺气肿或支气管炎）
- have heart disease (such as heart failure) 有心脏病（如心力衰竭）
- have diabetes 糖尿病
- have chronic kidney disease 患有慢性肾病
- have liver disease (such as hepatitis) 有肝病（如肝炎）
- have a condition affecting the brain or nerves (such as Parkinson’s disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy) 患有影响大脑或神经的疾病（如帕金森氏症、运动神经元病、多发性硬化症或大脑性瘫痪）
- have a condition that means they have a high risk of getting infections 高风险感染体質
- are taking medicine that can affect the immune system (such as low doses of steroids) 正在服用可能影响免疫系统的药物（如低剂量类固醇）
- are very obese (a BMI of 40 or above) 肥胖症（BMI高于或等于40）
- are pregnant 怀孕妇女 – 请参阅关于怀孕和冠状病毒的建议 – see advice about pregnancy and coronavirus
What to do if you’re at moderate risk? 如你是中度风险者, 怎么办?
If you’re at moderate risk from coronavirus, you can go out to work (if you cannot work from home) and for things like getting food or exercising. But you should try to stay at home as much as possible, and follow the general advice on social distancing when going out.
Unlike people at high risk, you will not get a shielding letter from the NHS or your GP.
不像高风险者,你不会收到国民保健局 (NHS) 或家庭医生 (GP) 通知信。
Preventing spread 预防传播
Remember: you can have the virus without showing symptoms for at least 5 days.
Therefore it is important to take these preventive steps in case you have it:
1. Respiratory Hygiene 呼吸卫生
- Cough or sneeze into a tissue to catch the droplets 咳嗽或打喷嚏到纸巾里去, 接住飞沫
- Bin the tissue immediately 立即把纸巾投入垃圾箱
- Wash or sanitize your hands 洗手或消毒
Respiratory hygiene and handwashing are important in preventing cold and flu viruses all the time. It is also important to have your annual flu jab if called to have one.
2. Handwashing 洗手
- Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, for at least 20 seconds 经常彻底洗手，至少20秒
- Make sure you dry your hands properly including the base of your fingers, back of your hands and wrists. Viruses and bacteria can be trapped in water droplets. 确保把你手擦干，包括手指根部，手背和手腕。病毒和细菌可能被藏在水滴中。
- Soap and hand sanitiser 肥皂和洗手液
- If possible you should wash your hands with soap and water. Soap contains an ingredient called a surfactant that lifts dirt off the hands. Sanitiser does not lift dirt off hands. Look for Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) in the ingredients. SLES is gentler and therefore better for older people and carers who need to ensure their skin is not sore as this can lead to infections. 如果可能的话，你应该用肥皂和水洗手。肥皂中含有一种叫表面活性剂的成分，可以去除手上的污垢。消毒剂不能去除手上的污垢。购买时, 注意找成分包含十二烷基硫酸钠（SLS）或月桂酸钠（SLES）。月桂酸钠（SLES）比较温和些，帮助确保老年人和护理者的皮肤,避免削皮导致感染。
- If soap and water are not available use a hand sanitiser (alcohol rub) with minimum 60% ethanol 如果没有肥皂和水，请使用含至少60%乙醇的洗手液（酒精擦）
3. Face covering 面罩
The Government guideline states evidence suggests that wearing a face covering does not protect you. However, if you are infected but have not yet developed symptoms, it may provide some protection for others you come into close contact with.
You must wear a face covering at all times on public transport or when attending a hospital as a visitor or outpatient. Hospitals will be able to provide a face covering in emergencies. If you can, you should also wear a face covering in other enclosed public spaces where social distancing isn’t possible and where you will come into contact with people you do not normally meet. This is most relevant for short periods indoors in crowded areas.
在公共交通工具上，门诊病人, 到医院就诊或探病人时，必须戴上面罩。医院只能在紧急情况下提供面罩。你应该尽量在封闭的公共场所, 或不能与其他人保持社交距离时戴上面罩，与你平时不接触的人见面时亦要戴面罩。处于室内短时间也应该戴上。
Face coverings should not be used by children under the age of 11 or those who may find it difficult to manage them correctly.
It is important to use face coverings properly and wash your hands before putting them on and taking them off.
You can make face-coverings at home. The key thing is it should cover the mouth and nose.
4. Social distance 社交距离
Keep at least 2 metres between yourself and others. If it is not possible to maintain 2m distance, stay at least 1 metre apart and wear a face covering, minimise contact with others and follow all Government guidelines (‘1 metre+’)
What is self-isolation 如何自我隔离?
Self-isolation is when you stay at home because you have or might have coronavirus (COVID-19).
This helps stop the virus spreading to other people.
When to self-isolate 何时自我隔离?
- you have any symptoms of coronavirus 你有新冠病的症状
- you’re waiting for a coronavirus test result 你在等候新冠病的检测结果
- you’ve tested positive for coronavirus 你的新冠病检测呈阳性
- you live with someone who has symptoms, is waiting for a test result or has tested positive 你和一个有症状、正在等待检测结果或检测呈阳性的人同住
- someone in your support bubble has symptoms, is waiting for a test result or has tested positive 你的”社交泡泡”中有人出现症状，正在等待测试结果或测试结果呈阳性
How to self-isolate 如何自我隔离?
- You must not leave your home if you’re self-isolating 在自我隔离期间，你不应离开家里
- Do not: 请勿：
- go to work, school or public places – work from home if you can 去上班，学校或公共场所 – 如果可以的话, 尽量在家工作
- go on public transport or use taxis 乘坐公共交通工具或乘坐出租车
- go out to get food and medicine – order it online or by phone, or ask someone to bring it to your home 出外买食物和药品 – 在网上或电话上订购，或者叫别人把它带回家
- have visitors in your home, including friends and family – except for people providing essential care 家人和朋友探访, 除了必要的照顾者
- go out to exercise – exercise at home or in your garden if you have one 出外锻炼 – 在家里或花园里锻炼
- You should try to keep apart from other members of your household if possible, using the bathroom and kitchen after everyone else and cleaning it thoroughly after you have used them. 你应该尽量与家里其他成员保持距离，用浴室和厨房后彻底清洁。
- If you have Covid-19 symptoms, you should self-isolate for 7 days starting from when you first display symptoms; other members of your household should isolate for 14 days. This is because it can take 5 days for symptoms to show; so 14 days allows for you and all your household to catch the virus and recover from it. 如果你有新冠病症状，你应该从你第一天出现症状开始, 自我隔离七天；你的家庭其他成员应该隔离14天。这是因为症状可能需要5天才能显现出来；所以14天可以让你和你的家人感染病毒并从中恢复过来。
Staying at home and shielding
People classed as clinically extremely vulnerable are strongly advised to stay at home as much as possible and keep visits outside to a minimum, although daily exercise is recommended.
This is called ‘shielding’ and the current advice is: 这被称为“屏蔽”，目前建议：
- If you wish to spend time outdoors you should take extra care to minimise contact with others by keeping to social distancing rules. 如果你在户外，你应该格外小心，尽量减少与他人接触，遵守社交距离规则。
- If you spend time outdoors, this can be with members of your own household or one person from another household (ideally the same person). 如果你在户外，可以和你家人或来自另一个家庭的一个人（最好是同一个人）在一起。
- You should stay alert when leaving home: wash your hands regularly with soap and water or hand sanitiser, maintain social distance and avoid gatherings of any size e.g. parties, weddings, funerals, etc 离家保持警惕：定期用肥皂和水洗手, 或用洗手液，保持社交距离，避免任何大规模聚会，如聚会、婚礼、葬礼等
- You should strictly avoid contact with anyone who is displaying symptoms of COVID-19 你应该严格避免接触任何有新冠病患者
GPs/NHS sent letters to people to notify them if they needed to shield.
The government is currently advising people to shield until 31 July 2020, but gradually easing protection advice in the interim period. It is regularly monitoring this position.
Meeting people you do not live with 与非你同住的人见面
Since 1 June, you have been allowed to meet in groups of up to 6 people from different households outdoors, but it remains important to observe strict social distancing. The authorities, including the police, have the powers to enforce the law through fines and dispersing gatherings.
从6月1日起，你已允许於户外来自不同家庭的人团体会面 (最多六人)，但重要点为保持严格的社交距离。当局包括警察在内, 有权通过罚款和驱散集会来执法。
Coronavirus support bubbles 新冠”社交泡泡”
If you live alone or are a single parent with children under the age of 18, you can expand your support network to form a ‘support bubble’ with one other household of any size, meeting indoors or out, be less than 2 metres apart and stay overnight as you want to.
The Government has issued guidance and regulations to manage the pandemic. The regulations are enforceable by the police and civil enforcement officers. They mainly apply to mass gatherings; the Government expects people to use common sense and follow guidance regarding social distancing and hygiene.
What is the R number? R值是什么？
The reproduction number (R) is the average number of secondary infections produced by 1 infected person. It indicates how fast the virus is spreading or slowing down. If R is below 1, the transmission rate is slowing down; if it goes above 1, the virus is spreading.
The Government action plan for managing the Covid-19 pandemic is based on a 5-level colour-coded alert system.
How the NHS test and trace service works 英国国民保健服务局 (NHS) 测试和跟踪服务是如何运作的?
Test and Trace is the Government’s key policy for controlling Covid-19. By tracing all the people who have been near an infected person and requiring them to self-isolate, the rate of transmission should be slowed down.
检测和追踪是政府控制新冠病的关键政策。通过追踪所有与感染者接触过的人, 并要求他们自我隔离, 减慢传播病毒的速度。
Contact tracers will: 接触追踪会：
- ask for your full name and date of birth to confirm your identity 询问您的全名和出生日期以确认您的身份
- ask for your postcode for practical support while self-isolating 在自我隔离的同时,询问您的邮政编码以方便为你提供支援
- ask if you are experiencing any coronavirus symptoms 询问你是否有新冠病症状
- provide advice on what you must do as you have been in contact with someone who has tested positive for coronavirus 要是你与新冠病患者接触过，为你提供如何处理建议
Contact tracers will never: 接触追踪不会:
- ask you to dial a premium rate number to speak to them 要求你支付高价率号码(premium rate number )來打电话跟他们通话
- ask you to make any form of payment or purchase a product of any kind 要求你支付任或购买任何种类的产品
- ask for any details about your bank account 询问你银行账户的详细资料
- ask for your social media identities or login details, or those of your contacts 询问您或您的社交圈子内的社交网络媒体身份或登录资料，
- ask you for any passwords or PINs, or ask you to set up any passwords or PINs over the phone 要求您输入任何密码或PINs，或通过电话要求您设置任何密码或PINs
- disclose any of your personal or medical information to your contacts向您社交圈子透露你的个人或病历资料
- provide medical advice on the treatment of any potential coronavirus symptoms 提供治疗新冠病症状的医疗建议
- ask you to download any software to your PC or ask you to hand over control of your PC, smartphone or tablet to anyone else 要求你把任何软件下载到你的电脑上，或者让你把你的电脑、智能手机或平板电脑的控制权交给他人
- ask you to access any website that does not belong to the government or NHS 要求你看任何不属于政府或英国国民保健服务局(NHS)的网站
The NHS Test & Trace service will provide a notification that can be used as evidence that you have been told to self-isolate. If you are unable to work from home, you are entitled to claim Statutory Sick Pay (SSP). The Test & Trace Service notification can be used for SSP claims.
英国国民保健服务局 (NHS) 测试追踪服务将提供通知，可以作为证据，显示你已被告知要自我隔离。如果您不能在家工作，您有权申请法定病假工资（Statutory Sick Pay – SSP）。测试和追踪服务通知可用于法定病假工资（Statutory Sick Pay – SSP）声明。
If you are self-isolating and live alone or the other members of your household are not able to go shopping, contact your local Council for support. Birmingham residents can log onto the Council website or call 0121 303 1116 between 9am-5pm.
伯明翰居民可在议会网站或于上午九点至下午五点之间, 打0121 303 1116电话登录。
Other tips to stay healthy 保持健康建议
- As Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, it is a good idea to do exercises to strengthen your lungs and improve your respiratory function. You can find exercise videos on the internet, or ask your GP or community nurse.
- It is very important to attend non-Covid health check-ups, to have routine vaccinations, etc. Unless you have an appointment, call your GP or 111 with any health concerns. In an emergency call 999. 保持定期健康检查、每年常规接种疫苗等都非常重要。如有任何健康问题, 除非您有预约，否则请致电您的家庭医生或电111。紧急呼叫999。
Covid-19 Cure 新冠病治愈
Viruses are cured by vaccinations where small amounts of the virus are injected into the body which develops antibodies to fight it; or by herd immunity where so many people in the community catch the virus that it becomes harder for the virus to spread.
As of July 2020, we do not have a vaccination and it is therefore vital to follow the guidance to reduce the risk of transmission.
Because viruses tend to have spikes and waves, it is highly likely there will be a second wave in the autumn or winter.
If this happens, lockdown measures may be reintroduced. You should therefore plan ahead for managing another lockdown period. If you have to self-isolate, you should not leave your house for 14 days:
- Ensure you have enough food and essential supplies 确保你有足够的食糧和必需品
- If you have any regular prescriptions, make sure your medicine cabinet is well stocked 如果你有常服用的处方，确保你有充足的药
- Exercise regularly to improve your lung and respiratory strength 经常運动锻炼，以强化你的肺和呼吸功能
- Learn how to use the internet so you can access information 学习如何使用互联网，以便您网上寻找信息
- Become a member of CCC-B so we can stay in touch with you during lockdown periods 成为伯明翰华人社区中心的成员，这样我们可以在封锁期间与您保持联系
Useful contact numbers or web links 有用联系电话和网页表
Birmingham City Council – Coronavirus
伯明翰市议会 – 新冠病网页 (Birmingham City Council – Coronavirus)
Official UK Government Coronavirus Guidance and Support
英国官方新冠病最新指引和援助建议 (Official UK Government Coronavirus Guidance and Support)
NHS 111 online
英国国民保健服务局的111网络热线 (NHS 111 online)
1 1 1 online
NHS – latest information and advice about coronavirus (COVID-19)
英国国民保健服务局(NHS) – 新冠病最新信息和建议
Get a free NHS test to check if you have Coronavirus
World Health Organisation
世界卫生组织 (World Health Organisation)
The Active Wellbeing Society
积极健康协会 (The Active Wellbeing Society)
10 tips from NHS to help if you’re worried about Coronavirus
National Domestic Abuse Helpline
Free and confidential advice, 24 hours a day on 0808 2000 247
For immediate danger, call 999 and ask for the police
家庭虐待求助热线 (National Domestic Abuse Helpline)
24小时免费保密咨询 0808 2000 247
NHS bereavement helpline on 0800 2600 400 for guidance and support if someone you know has died.
Call 999 if somebody dies at home unexpectedly.
如果你认识的人去世，请电NHS丧亲热线0800 2600 400征求指导和支援。
Data on Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK
英国官方新冠病资料 (Data on Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK)