WEEKLY UPDATE 11 December 2020 – 每周疫情快讯 2020年12月11日

I: Vaccine update

I.I Covid-19 vaccinations start to roll out

The first Covid-19 vaccine was adminstered this week to 90 year old Margaret Keenan at University Hospital Coventry 

https://www.coventrytelegraph.net/news/coventry-news/coventry-hospital-covid-19-vaccine-19417389

I.II Allergic reactions

People with a history of strong allergic reactions are advised not to have the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55244122

At a glance guide to the priority order for vaccination set out by the Government: 

Detailed Government information: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-vaccination-why-you-are-being-asked-to-wait/why-you-have-to-wait-for-your-covid-19-vaccine?priority-taxon=774cee22-d896-44c1-a611-e3109cce8eae

The Pfizer BioNTech vaccine has been produced in large blocks, can be moved a maximum of 4 times and must be stored below  minus-70°C.  As  care homes cannot provide the storage facilities, the programme has changed so that the first group to receive the vaccination has been older people aged 80+ who are going to hospital as outpatients or who are being discharged ie Priority Group 2.

No Birmingham hospitals were included in the network of 50 hospitals where the vaccination was initally rolled out. However, the Government has now announced that University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) will now be administering the jab.  UHB runs Good Hope, Heartlands and Solihull hospitals and Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham.

https://www.birminghammail.co.uk/news/midlands-news/nhs-announces-coronavirus-vaccine-now-19437248 

Key messages from Birmingham Director Public Health Dr Justin Varney at this week’s Covid-19 Community Champions briefing (8.12.2020)

  • All 3 vaccines that are expected to be approved for use in the UK require 2 doses.   Anyone who has the vaccine must ensure they have the 2nd dose in order for it to be effective.  This should be 21-28 days after the 1st dose. 
  • For herd immunity to be achieved through vaccination, at least 85% of the population must be vaccinated.
  • It is not known how long the vaccine lasts, whether boosters will be needed. Longer term effects are also unknown, although the vaccines have been trialled with volunteers over the last 8 months+.
  • If you plan to enter a Christmas Bubble with another household [23-27 December], consider isolating for 14 days beforehand to reduce your chances of catching the virus before you socialise in your bubble. 
  • Dr Varney stated that it is likely that Birmingham will return to Tier 3 from 28th December, and it is also possible that another national lockdown will be imposed as social mixing during the Christmas period will lead to a rise in cases with an inevitable increase in hospitalisations and Covid-related deaths. 
  • Because of improved understanding and better treatment developed over the last 8 months, fewer Covid patients are dying but they are spending longer in hospital – blocking beds which are reserved for winter when hospitalisations always rise due to flu, accidents, injuries, etc.  
  • Dr Varney recommends using the Germ Defence tool 

https://www.germdefence.org/ 

This article explains the difference between cleaning and disinfecting your home

https://patient.info/news-and-features/covid-19-do-you-need-to-disinfect-your-home

‘In terms of disease prevention, cleaning and disinfection are different actions, but it’s important to do both. Cleaning is the removal of surface dirt and grime, whilst disinfectants actually kill bacteria and viruses’

II Self-Isolation payment

It is now possible to apply for the self-isolation payment if you are told to isolate by the NHS Test & Trace app

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-55259272

Apply to the Council 

https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50231/coronavirus_covid-19/2263/test_and_trace_support_payment

III Don’t forget your flu jab! 

If you are also entitled to a free flu jab, make sure you have this at least 1-2 weeks before the first dose of the Covid vaccination.   This ensures your body recognises and responds separately to the two viruses.  

IV: Grants for businesses 

IV.I Local Restrictions Support Grant (Open)

Aimed at businesses in Tier 2 and 3 areas that remained open between 1 August-5 November but which were negatively affected by the restrictions. 

IV.II Additional Restrictions Grant 

A discretionary grant. The Government has empowered local councils to set the criteria but strongly indicated businesses supplying retail, hospitality and leisure companies and businesses in the events sector should be supported.  

Apply to Birmingham Council 

https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50232/support_for_businesses_during_the_coronavirus_covid-19/2270/local_restrictions_support_grants_lrsg_and_additional_restrictions_grant_arg/4

Restrictions 2.12.2020 – 27.12.2020

The Tiers will be reviewed every 14 days, so the first review will be 16.12.2020.

For a 5 day period over Christmas, the Tiers will be lifted and replaced with the ‘Christmas Bubble’ system.  What happens from 28th December will depend on the case rates.

DATES

TYPE OF

RESTRICTION

KEY POINTS 

02.12.2020 – 16.12.2020

Tier 3 applies 

  • The Government has announced that Birmingham will be in Tier 3 Very High Alert level from 2.12.2020. 
  • See chart below for the Tier 3 restrictions. 

16.12.2020 – 23.12.2020

To be confirmed 

This will depend on the 2-week review

23.12.2020 27.12.2020

‘Christmas Bubbles’

  • 3 households can form a ‘Christmas Bubble’ during the period 23-27th December. In England, a pre-exising support bubble counts as one household – potentially 6 housholds (ie 3 Support Bubbles) can form a Christmas Bubble.
  • Households cannot swap between Christmas Bubbles – once a bubble is formed, that combination is fixed for the 5-day period.  There is no limit on household size. 
  • Christmas Bubbles can mix indoors including private gardens, stay overnight in each other’s homes and visit places of worship and outdoor public spaces together. 
  • Travel restrictions are lifted so you can visit each other. 
    • People who are self-isolating must NOT form a Christmas Bubble. 
    • If anyone tests positive or displays symptoms up to 48 hours after the Christmas Bubble last meets, everyone in the Bubble must self-isolate.

28.12.2020 onwards

To be confirmed

What happens after Christmas will depend on whether household mixing causes a spike in cases, especially if the NHS is overwhelmed. We may revert to Tier 3 or 2 or there may be another national lockdown. 

Should you form a Christmas Bubble?

The Government has relaxed the rules for 5 days so families and friends can get together without penalty. You must decide whether to form a Christmas Bubble based on the risk factors for your household/support bubble. 

Remember that anyone can catch Covid-19 but some groups are at higher risk of complications and of dying if they contract the virus. These are: 

  • People over 80
  • People under 80 with long term health conditions
  • Men 
  • Ethnic minorities especially South Asian
  • Other risk factors include obesity, smoking

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/ncds/un-interagency-task-force-on-ncds/uniatf-policy-brief-ncds-and-covid-030920-poster.pdf?ua=1

The R number in Birmingham is currently 0.6 

To check case and death rates in your ward http://ukcovid19.nw.r.appspot.com/

每周疫情快讯: 20201211

I:疫苗最新信息

I.I 新冠疫苗开始接种

本周在考文垂大学医院,90岁的玛格丽特·基南注射第一支新冠疫苗。  

https://www.coventrytelegraph.net/news/coventry-news/coventry-hospital-covid-19-vaccine-19417389

I.II过敏反应

建议有强烈过敏反应史的人不要使用辉瑞BioNTech疫苗

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55244122

政府规定了优先接种疫苗的顺序一览表:

有关新冠疫苗,政府发布的详细信息请参阅 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-vaccination-why-you-are-being-asked-to-wait/why-you-have-to-wait-for-your-covid-19-vaccine?priority-taxon=774cee22-d896-44c1-a611-e3109cce8eae

辉瑞BioNTech疫苗已批量生产,疫苗运输过程中最多可转运4次,并且必须在低于-70°C的温度下储存。 由于疗养院无法提供存储设施,接种计划有所调整。第一优先接种疫苗的人群,即80岁及以上长者,需要去医院门诊接种疫苗,或者被列入第2组优先接种人群。

第一批推行新冠疫苗接种的50家医院中没有伯明翰的医院。 但是,政府刚刚宣布,伯明翰大学医院(UHB)被授权允许进行新冠疫苗的接种。伯明翰大学医院管辖4所医院包括Good Hope医院、Heartlands医院、Solihull医院和QE伯明翰伊丽莎白女王医院。

https://www.birminghammail.co.uk/news/midlands-news/nhs-announces-coronavirus-vaccine-now-19437248

伯明翰公共卫生部总监贾斯汀·瓦尼(Justin Varney)博士在本周的新冠社区简报会上的重要讲话(2020128日)

  • 预计将在英国批准使用的所有3种疫苗都需要接种两剂。接种新冠疫苗的人士需要知道他们在接种第二剂后才能产生免疫,这应该是在第一剂后的21-28天。
  • 如果想通过疫苗接种获得群体免疫,至少要有85%人口的接种新冠疫苗。
  • 目前,新冠疫苗可持续免疫多长时间,是否需要继续接种来加强免疫,都还是未知。在过去超过8个月期间,尽管新冠疫苗已经在志愿者当中进行了试验,但长期效果和作用还是未知。
  • 如果您打算与另一个家庭一起组成圣诞节防疫泡泡 [12月23日至27日期间]。建议大家在一起聚会之前,请考虑先自我隔离14天,以减少感染或传播新冠病毒的几率。 
  • Varney博士表示,伯明翰很可能从12月28日起重返疫情警戒级别的第3级,圣诞节期间,如果因社交聚会导致确诊数量不断增加,医院负荷增加和新冠相关的死亡人数增加,英格兰有可能会再次实行全国封锁。
  • 过去的8个月中,通过对新冠肺炎疾病的深入了解和治疗方法的不断改善,新冠患者死亡人数大幅降低,但患者在医院住院的时间更长–从而导致住院率不断上升,使得医院床位数短缺,这些病床本来是为冬季因流感、事故、受伤等患者预留的。

Varney博士建议使用Germ Defence防疫指南

http://chs.germdefence.org/

本文介绍了家庭清洁和消毒的区别

https://patient.info/news-and-features/covid-19-do-you-need-to-disinfect-your-home

就疾病预防而言,清洁和消毒是不同的措施,同时做好清洁和消毒都很重要。清洁是去除表面的脏物和污垢,而使用消毒剂实际上是杀死细菌和病毒。 

II 隔离补助金

如果NHS 测试与追踪部门通知您需要进行自我隔离,您无法在家工作,则可在线申请隔离补助金

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-55259272

通过伯明翰市政府申请,申请网址

https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50231/coronavirus_covid-19/2263/test_and_trace_support_payment

III 请不要忘记接种您的流感疫苗!

如果您有资格免费接种流感疫苗,请确保您在接种流感疫苗1至2周之后,才可以接种新冠疫苗的第一剂,这样可以确保您的身体识别这两种病毒并分别对它们做出免疫反应。

IV:疫情期间商业补助

IV.I 商业支持补助金(开放申请)

此补助金主要为8月1日至11月5日,在伯明翰实施第2级和第3级疫情警戒期间,继续保持营业,但因疫情警戒,业务受到影响的企业或商户。

IV.II 因疫情受限的其他补助

此类补助属于酌情考虑的一种财政援助。 中央政府已授权地方政府制定申请条件,着重针对零售业,服务业和休闲行业的企业和商户得到相应的支持。

通过伯明翰市政府申请,申请网址

https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50232/support_for_businesses_during_the_coronavirus_covid-19/2270/local_restrictions_support_grants_lrsg_and_additional_restrictions_grant_arg/4

防疫措施:2020年12月2日至2020年12月27日

重新恢复的3级疫情警戒级别系统将每14天评估一次,第一次评估日期为2020年12月16日。在圣诞节假期期间,将暂时放松防疫限制,实施为期5天“圣诞防疫泡泡”。 从12月28日之后,将根据疫情状况来决定下一步的防疫措施。

日期

限制类型

关键信息

2020年12月2日至2020年12月16日

实施第3级疫情警戒

  • 政府已宣布,自2020年12月2日起,伯明翰将处于疫情警戒级别的第3级,即非常高。
    • 疫情警戒级别第3级的具体限制措施,请参见下表。

2020年12月16日至2020年12月23日

待确认

取决于实施2周疫情警戒级别后的评估结果

2020年12月23日至2020年12月27日

“圣诞防疫泡泡”

  • 在12月23日至27日期间,最多可以有3户家庭形成“圣诞防疫泡泡”。 在英格兰,预先已经形成支持泡泡的所有成员可以算为一户家庭,这样,有可能最多有来自6个家庭(即3个支持泡泡)的成员可以形成一个圣诞防疫泡泡。
  • “圣诞防疫泡泡”必须是固定成员,不可以随意互换,一旦组成就不可改变,为期5天。每个家庭成员的人数没有限制。
  • 同一圣诞防疫泡泡的成员可以在家里聚集,包括自家花园,可以在彼此的家中过夜,可以一起去公共场所、礼拜场所和户外场所。
  • 取消旅行限制,形成“圣诞防疫泡泡”的家庭可以互相访问 
    • 正在自我隔离的人士不可以与其他家庭形成“圣诞防疫泡泡”。
    • “圣诞防疫泡泡”成员,在最后一次会面之后的48小时内,如果有任何成员新冠测试呈阳性或出现症状时,则所有圣诞防疫泡泡每个成员都必须自我隔离。

2020年12月28日起

待确认

圣诞节后的防疫措施将取决于家庭混合是否会导致新冠个案的激增,特别NHS医疗机构是否会不堪重负。届时,我们可能会恢复到疫情警戒级别系统的第3级或第2级,或者可能实施新的全国封锁。

您是否应该参与圣诞防疫泡泡?

政府将实施为期5天,暂时放松防疫的限制,以便圣诞节期间家人和朋友可以相聚,不受处罚。 您必须评估您家庭/支持泡泡成员的风险因素,决定是否组成圣诞防疫泡泡。请记住,任何人都可能感染新冠病毒,但某些人群感染新冠病毒会面临高危并发症或死亡风险,包括:

  • 80岁以上的长者
  • 80岁以下有长期健康状况的人士
  • 男性
  • 少数族裔,特别是来自南亚的族裔
  • 其他危险因素包括肥胖,吸烟

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/ncds/un-interagency-task-force-on-ncds/uniatf-policy-brief-ncds-and-covid-030920-poster.pdf?ua=1

伯明翰目前的传染率R值为0.6

点击链接查看确诊病例数和死亡数 http://ukcovid19.nw.r.appspot.com/

 

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